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Applied Research

Course Details

Course Number
RADS 4913
Section Number
RADS 4913
Spring 2015
Days & Times


Dr. Kevin R. Clark (view Profile)


Publication Manual for the APA
6th edition
Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to:

  • Apply appropriate research methods.
  • Formulate an appropriate research question.
  • Compose a publication quality substantive research paper reviewing previously published articles.
  • Format this research paper, which is a literature review, in appropriate APA style (no original research is allowed).
Course Expectations

This is the capstone course involving directed research which will be completed by reviewing previously published articles, culminating in a substantive paper related to the field of radiologic sciences. The student’s topic/research question must be approved by the course instructor.

Grading Standards

Students are required to submit all assignments in the appropriate assignment dropbox within D2L. Do not email or fax assignments unless told specifically to do so by your instructor. Do not wait until the last minute to submit in case you have technical difficulties. If you have difficulties submitting any assignments, contact your instructor immediately so problems can be resolved by the deadline. Technical difficulties need to be addressed through the D2L help link. Assignments must be submitted on time; each late submission will result in a grade of 0.


Grading Scheme

Grading Scale





Research Question & Outline




Title Page




Reference List




Body of Paper






59 or below


Final Paper





Submission Format Policy

General Assignment Format

This course is divided into six (6) assignments and all assignments must adhere to the following requirements:

  • IBM compatible format (not MAC)
  • Word 97 or newer version (not Microsoft Works, WordPerfect, or Pages)
  • Times New Roman, 12 point font ONLY
  • 1” margins on all sides
  • Double-spaced

The assignments should be written using standard technical writing skills. This includes appropriate spelling, grammar, sentence structure, transitions, text flow, currency of knowledge, and scope of research. Additionally, all submitted work must conform to APA format.

Student Responsibilities

As a student enrolled in this course, you will be responsible for adhering to and meeting posted deadlines and due dates. Posted closing dates along with assignment due dates and deadlines found in the Course Calendar within D2L will be strictly enforced. If an assignment does not meet the posted deadline, a grade of zero (0) will be recorded for that assignment. Extenuating circumstances do occur and will be addressed on an individual basis. NOTE: waiting until the last minute to submit an assignment does not constitute an extenuating circumstance.


Assignment 1: Request for Research Question and Outline Approval Form (3%)

Students must complete the Request for Research Question and Outline Approval Form, include a detailed outline of the paper, (please look at the sample outline for the amount of detail required), and include an APA formatted reference list. There should be at least 2 references per major section of the body of the paper. The assignment must be submitted to the Assignment 1 Dropbox within D2L by the due date. References older than 5 years will generally not be accepted, but depending on the topic, source, etc., this will be at the discretion of the instructor. All parts of this assignment must be submitted as one single document via the assignment dropbox.

This course only allows topics related to Radiologic Sciences (which emphasize the role of technologists), not topics related to clinical radiology (which emphasize the role of radiologists). For example, “Factors Contributing to Job Satisfaction for MRI Technologists” is acceptable, but “Treatment of Obstructive Bowel Syndrome” is not acceptable. Also, for example, “Position for Radiographic Demonstration of the Trauma Knee” is acceptable, but “Diagnosis of Cerebral Hemorrhage” is not acceptable. Topics cannot deal with subjects that are outside the scope of practice of the radiographer.

The outline should be based on published literature. Students will not develop their own surveys or conduct experiments to write this paper.

Assignment 2: Title Page (2%)

Review pages 23, 24, 41, & 229 within the APA Manual. Use the sample title page in the course as a guide because it includes additional information not included on the APA version to help distinguish assignments submitted in different classes. The assignment must be submitted to the Assignment 2 Dropbox within D2L by the due date.

Assignment 3: Reference List (10%)

Refer to Chapters 6 and 7 in the APA Manual for an explanation on how to construct a reference list. Also, refer back to RADS 3503; you should have your graded reference list from that class. A minimum of eight (8) scholarly references are required. The assignment must be submitted to the Assignment 3 Dropbox within D2L by the due date.

NOTE ON REFERENCES: References should be from a variety of sources with the majority being from peer-reviewed journals or other scholarly works. Peer-reviewed journals use an editorial board that evaluates the article for accuracy. Publications or magazines like RT Image, Advance, Decisions in Imaging Economics, and Applied Radiology are not peer-reviewed. Journals such as Radiologic Technology, Radiologic Science & Education, and Radiology Management are peer-reviewed. You should be able to look at the inside cover of a journal or on a website to see if the journal has a review board. Most likely if you cannot find anything about a review board, then the journal is not peer-reviewed. The journal homepage should also indicate if the journal is peer-reviewed.

Assignment 4: Body (45%)

The body of this paper will include the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Discussion, Suggestions for Future Research, and Conclusion.  All sections except the Introduction should have a header (see APA Manual, p. 62, Section 3.03). This is an evaluation of your ability to synthesize the literature. Be sure to include a corrected Reference List with this assignment. The body of the paper must be no less than 5 pages and no more than 7 full length pages (Times New Roman, 12 point font). An expanded explanation of each component follows:

Introduction: Includes background, purpose, research question, hypothesis (APA Manual, p. 27-28). This is where you develop the reason for the problem. Note: The word Introduction is not used as a header. The first section of the paper is assumed to be the Introduction section.

Methods: Include how references were found and what resources were used. The APA Manual describes methodology for original research. Since no original research is allowed in this course, use the methods section to describe how information was obtained. Example: Searches were conducted using the following key words: knee injuries, radiology, radiography, infection control, (etc. to include all the appropriate search terms). Academic First Search, ERIC, EbscoHost were the primary databases used and were accessed through Midwestern State University’s Moffett Library.

Discussion: (APA Manual, p. 35-36). Compare the literature with the approved research question. This is where all the literature is pulled together so the reader does not have to read each separate source. The writer’s job for this section is to enlighten the reader by synthesizing the literature and reporting on it. Synthesis of material means that information gathered from more than one author are compared and contrasted. For example, one can formulate thoughts based on the literature, but a personal opinion is not appropriate in a research literature review. The writer is reporting on what was found; therefore, it must be supported with reference citations. Do not use personal pronouns such as “I found this…” or “we discovered this…” 

Poor Discussion

Firms must take the initiative in retaining gifted and competent employees to effectively deal with this expected predicament. Proactive exploring is the catalyst for discovering various methods that could improve the retention rate of radiologic technologists and provide direction for organizations looking to implement and maintain a successful employee retention program.

Better Discussion

During this literature review, a common theme was evident among many of the authors (Ackerman, 2000; Bated, 2003; Devlin, 2000; Myers, 2006; & Zuckerman, 2007) how organizations must take the initiative in retaining gifted and competent employees. It appears proactive exploring is the catalyst for discovering various methods that could improve the retention rate of radiologic technologists and provide direction for organizations looking to implement and maintain a successful employee retention program. For example, Veale' (2008) said, "Passive attitudes towards employee retention are no longer effective. Health care organizations are bleeding to death by ignoring the loss of talent" (p. 45). 
It seems then the answer to the question of how to keep talent is to contemplate, renovate, innovate, and create new best practices to achieve institutional goals and thereby add to the existing body of knowledge on radiographer retention. Watts (2005) and Johnston (2007) support these notions by strongly encouraging health care organizations to work with employees instead of against them and to actively engage employees in the development of best practices for retention.

Suggestions for Future Research: Explain where the literature was lacking and possible future research studies.

Conclusion: This is where you remind readers of the purpose, what was discovered, and if the findings were in line with the research question. Remember, this section should be no longer than 1 page.

References: Include the reference list you corrected after receiving your instructor’s comments.

Appendices: (if needed, not encouraged). Place any graphics, tables, etc. after the references.

You must include your complete revised reference list with this assignment as part of the document, not separately. The assignment must be submitted as a single document to the Assignment 4 Dropbox within D2L by the due date.

Assignment 5: Abstract (10%)

This is an evaluation of your ability to summarize your paper in one paragraph. Refer to pages 25, 26, and 229 in the APA Manual. The abstract should be between 150 and 250 words. Explain what the focus of the paper is and a little about the literature. Sell your paper here. Write something that is going to make people want to read it. The abstract is essentially a snapshot of the entire paper; it is what hooks people and convinces them to continue reading. Write the abstract after you complete the paper. The assignment must be submitted to the Assignment 5 Dropbox within D2L by the due date.

Assignment 6: Final Paper (30%)

This research paper is to be a substantial manuscript (5-7 full length pages for the body). The length of the body of the paper is in addition to the title page, abstract, appendices, and reference list. The paper must reflect baccalaureate level effort and must incorporate the suggestions for revision provided by the instructor for Assignments 1-5. It should demonstrate the student’s ability to gather and discriminate pertinent resources, synthesize information from a variety of sources, apply new information to a topic, and correctly use the APA reference style.

All parts of this assignment must be submitted as one single document through the Assignment 6 Dropbox within D2L by the due date.

Note: You may not submit a paper for a grade in this class that already has been (or will be) submitted for a grade in another course, unless you obtain the explicit written permission of me and the other instructor involved in advance.
Late Paper Policy

Students are required to submit all assignments in the appropriate assignment dropbox within D2L. Do not email or fax assignments unless told specifically to do so by your instructor. Do not wait until the last minute to submit in case you have technical difficulties. If you have difficulties submitting any assignments, contact your instructor immediately so problems can be resolved by the deadline. Technical difficulties need to be addressed through the D2L help link. Assignments must be submitted on time; each late submission will result in a grade of 0.

Plagiarism Policy

Plagiarism is the use of someone else's thoughts, words, ideas, or lines of argument in your own work without appropriate documentation (a parenthetical citation at the end and a listing in "Works Cited")-whether you use that material in a quote, paraphrase, or summary. It is a theft of intellectual property and will not be tolerated, whether intentional or not.

Student Honor Creed

As an MSU Student, I pledge not to lie, cheat, steal, or help anyone else do so."

As students at MSU, we recognize that any great society must be composed of empowered, responsible citizens. We also recognize universities play an important role in helping mold these responsible citizens. We believe students themselves play an important part in developing responsible citizenship by maintaining a community where integrity and honorable character are the norm, not the exception.

Thus, We, the Students of Midwestern State University, resolve to uphold the honor of the University by affirming our commitment to complete academic honesty. We resolve not only to be honest but also to hold our peers accountable for complete honesty in all university matters.

We consider it dishonest to ask for, give, or receive help in examinations or quizzes, to use any unauthorized material in examinations, or to present, as one's own, work or ideas which are not entirely one's own. We recognize that any instructor has the right to expect that all student work is honest, original work. We accept and acknowledge that responsibility for lying, cheating, stealing, plagiarism, and other forms of academic dishonesty fundamentally rests within each individual student.

We expect of ourselves academic integrity, personal professionalism, and ethical character. We appreciate steps taken by University officials to protect the honor of the University against any who would disgrace the MSU student body by violating the spirit of this creed.

Written and adopted by the 2002-2003 MSU Student Senate.

Students with Disabilities

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Disability Support Services in Room 168 of the Clark Student Center, (940) 397-4140.

Safe Zones Statement

The professor considers this classroom to be a place where you will be treated with respect as a human being - regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, political beliefs, age, or ability. Additionally, diversity of thought is appreciated and encouraged, provided you can agree to disagree. It is the professor's expectation that ALL students consider the classroom a safe environment.

Contacting your Instructor

All instructors in the Department have voicemail in their offices and MWSU e-mail addresses. Make sure you add your instructor's phone number and e-mail address to both email and cell phone lists of contacts.

Attendance Requirements

Since this is an online course, there are no mandatory class sessions. However, it is important that you keep track of your own progress, due dates, etc.  Students should communicate with the instructor on a regular basis.

Other Policies

Office Hours

Please call or email your instructor to schedule an appointment.

Special Needs

In accordance with Section 504 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Midwestern State University endeavors to make reasonable adjustments in its policies, practices, services, and facilities to ensure equal opportunity for qualified persons with disabilities to participate in all educational programs and activities.

The Office of Disability Support Services (DSS) provides information and assistance, arranges accommodations, and serves as a liaison for students, instructors, and staff.  The DSS has assistance devices such as books on tape, recorders, and adaptive software which can be loaned to qualified individuals. A student/employee who seeks accommodations on the basis of disability must register with the Office of Disability Support Services in the Clark Student Center Room 168 or call (940) 397.4140 for further information. Documentation of disability from a competent professional is required.

Individuals with grievances related to discrimination or lack of accommodation on the basis of a disability are encouraged to resolve the problem directly with the area involved. If the matter remains unresolved, advice and/or assistance will be provided by the Office of Disability Services for resolution. The grievance procedure may be found in the Student Handbook and Activities Calendar.

The Director of the Counseling Center serves as the ADA Coordinator and may be contacted at (940) 397.4618, TDD (940) 397.4515, or 3410 Taft Blvd., Clark Student Center Room 108.

Academic Conduct

Academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, etc.) will not be tolerated in this class and may result in suspension or dismissal from this course and from the program. Cases will also be referred to the Dean of Students for possible dismissal from the university.

RADS 4913 adheres to the MSU Code of Conduct. In particular, academic dishonesty, however small, creates a breach in academic integrity. A student’s participation in this course comes with the expectation that his or her work will be completed in full observance of the MSU Code of Student Conduct. A student should consult the current Student Handbook for answers to any questions about the code.

Honor System

“As an MSU Student, I pledge not to lie, cheat, steal, or help anyone else to do so.”

Cheating includes, but is not limited to: (1) use of any unauthorized assistance in taking quizzes, tests, or examinations; (2) dependence upon the aid of sources beyond those authorized by the instructor in writing papers, preparing reports, solving problems, or completing other assignments; or (3) the acquisition of tests or other academic materials belonging to the university faculty or staff without permission.

Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to: the use of, by paraphrase or direct quotation without correct citation in the text and on the reference list, the published or unpublished works of another person. Students may not submit papers and assignments that they have previously submitted for this or other courses. The use of materials generated by agencies engaged in "selling" term papers is also plagiarism. Students are encouraged to review the tutorials and suggested websites for more information about plagiarism. Papers and other assignments may be submitted to an external agency for verification of originality and authenticity.

By enrolling in this course, the student expressly grants MSU a “limited right” in all intellectual property created by the student for the purpose of this course. The “limited right” shall include, but not limited to: the right to reproduce the student’s work product in order to verify originality and authenticity as well as for educational purposes. Specifically, faculty may submit student papers and assignments to an external agency to verify originality and authenticity to detect for plagiarism.

Research, by nature, is highly interactive and collaborative with researchers helping each other learn. Students are encouraged to take full advantage of many resources available including Internet sites, handouts and module notebooks, other textbooks and journals, faculty, and peers. This interactive collegial learning environment is conducive for life-long learning and productive research. The faculty encourages you to participate in the plagiarism tutorial which can be found on the homepage of this course.

When students submit their paper for grading, they are attesting that they have abided by this rule.

Administrative Process

Unresolved issues related to this course should be first addressed between the student and the course instructor. If there is no resolution, students must follow this sequence:

  1. Department Chair: Dr. Jeff Killion (940) 397.4679
  2. College Dean: Dr. James Johnston (940) 397.4594
  3. Dean of Students: Matthew Parks (940) 397.6273
Writing Proficiency Requirement

All students seeking a Bachelor's degree from Midwestern State University must satisfy a writing proficiency requirement once they've 1) passed the 6 hours of Communication Core and and 2) earned 60 hours. You may meet this requirement by passing either the Writing Proficiency Exam or English 2113. Please keep in mind that, once you've earned over 90 hours, you lose the opportunity to take the $25 exam and have no option but to enroll in the three-credit hour course. If you have any questions about the exam, visit the Writing Proficiency Office website at, or call 397-4131.

Campus Carry

Senate Bill 11 passed by the 84th Texas Legislature allows licensed handgun holders to carry concealed handguns on campus, effective August 1, 2016. Areas excluded from concealed carry are appropriately marked, in accordance with state law. For more information regarding campus carry, please refer to the University’s webpage at

If you have questions or concerns, please contact MSU Chief of Police Patrick Coggins at