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Radiation Biology and Protection

Course Details

Course Number
RADS 2112
Section Number
RADS 2112
Spring 2014
Days & Times


Dr. Kevin R. Clark (view Profile)


Practical Radiation Protection and Applied Radiobi
2nd edition
Course Objectives

SCAN Competencies

1.      Basic Skills

2.      Thinking Skills

3.      Personal Qualities

4.      Resources

5.      Interpersonal Skills

6.      Information

7.      Systems

8.      Technology


Course Objectives (with corresponding SCAN competencies)

Upon completion of this course, the students will:


1.      Understand principles of ionizing radiation interactions with matter based upon x-ray production theories (2, 6, 7, 8).

2.      Recognize the effects of ionizing radiation to human tissue at subatomic, atomic, cellular, and systemic levels (2, 3, 5, 6).

3.      Discuss studies regarding biologic effects of ionizing radiation on human tissue (2, 3, 5, 6).

4.      Differentiate between early and late effects of ionizing radiation on human tissue (2, 3, 5, 6).

5.      Apply radiation safety principles for patient, self, coworkers, and the general public while working as a radiographer (1, 2, 3, 5).

6.      Provide patient information in response to questions posed by patients regarding the radiation safety of radiologic procedures (1, 2, 3, 5, 6).

7.      Use problem solving skills to determine the best radiation protection strategies o utilize when performing radiographic procedures (2, 6).

8.      Apply critical thinking skills to determine how to provide maximum radiation safety to self, patient, and the general public (1, 2, 4, 5, 6).

9.      Assess patient procedure situations to determine if the patient is properly protected from radiation exposure (1, 2, 6, 8).

10.  Communicate with coworkers, supervisors, and physicians regarding concerns that might arise related to radiation safety in the radiology department (2, 3, 5).


In addition, there are chapter objectives listed at the beginning of each chapter in the textbook. 

Course Expectations

Ionizing radiation can cause alterations to human cells. As radiographers, we must regulate its administration to effectively protect humans from the potential for harm. This course will provide the student with an introduction to the basic concepts of radiation protection for themselves, the patient, and the general public. Emphasis will be placed on units of exposure; MPD for radiation workers and the public; safe practices; federal guidelines, rules and regulations; and radiation biology.

Grading Standards


            Brochure Project                     20%

            Chapter Quizzes                      30%

            Exam One                               25%

            Exam Two                               25%


Grading Scale

            A          90-100

            B          80-89

            C          75-79

            D          60-74

            F          59 or below


**Please note this course requires a passing grade of 75 for a grade of “C” or better.

The last opportunity to drop this course with a grade of ‘W’ is 4:00 pm on March 10, 2014. Refer to the Undergraduate Bulletin for details about receiving a grade of “Incomplete” in a course. In an emergency or extenuating circumstance, a student may request a grade of “Incomplete” in a course before grades are submitted. If the instructor grants the “Incomplete,” the student has until thirty (30) days after the beginning of the next long semester to complete the course requirements.  If the student does not complete the course requirements within the deadline, the grade of “Incomplete” will automatically convert into a grade of “F.”

Submission Format Policy

Class Activities and Assignments

See the course schedule at the end of this syllabus for specific information about activities and due dates. If students have technical difficulties with D2L, they should use the ‘Help’ link within D2L, contact the MSU Information Systems Support Staff, and send an email to the professor explaining what happened.

All assignments must be written at the baccalaureate level and will be graded for accuracy, completeness, quality, spelling, grammar, and integrity.

All assignments, exams, etc. must be completed and submitted by the due date indicated on the course schedule at the end of this syllabus. If a student cannot complete a course activity by the indicated due date, the student must contact the course instructor immediately. Please note that late submissions will not be graded; students must contact the instructor for approval for late submissions. If a student has emergency issues, then the student must contact the instructor as soon as possible (within a day or two). Any activity not completed and submitted by the due date will be addressed on an individual basis.

·         Independent Reading Assignments

Module 1: Chapters 1 and 9

Module 2: Chapters 2, 3, and 4

Module 3: Chapters 5 and 6

Module 4: Chapters 7 and 8

Module 5: Chapters 10 and 11

*Supplemental notes are provided within D2L to complement the reading assignments.


·         Brochure Assignment (20%)

You will create a brochure explaining the details of protecting the patient during radiographic examinations. In the brochure, you will discuss technique selection, shielding, and collimation. You will address these questions in the brochure:

1.      How are each of the three concepts used to protect the patient?

2.      How does the technologist have control over each of the three concepts?

3.      Why is it important that technologists are taught these three concepts?

The students will use the textbook and two (2) additional sources such as reliable websites or journal articles to document the information included in the brochure. Journal articles should be from peer-reviewed journals found within the MSU’s Moffett Library databases. Wikipedia is convenient for casual use, but it is not a reliable source for this assignment because it is an open source. This means anyone can modify the content on the website so you might be using information that is not current or accurate.

Students are encouraged to use one of the various brochure templates found in Microsoft Word. Email your instructor if you have questions on how to access those templates.

Be sure to review the grading rubric for this assignment.

·         Module Quizzes (30%)

Students should complete the reading assignments, answer the chapter objectives, and review the questions at the end of the chapter before attempting the module quizzes. It is important to know the module content before attempting the module quizzes since the quizzes are timed (60 minutes enforced). Quiz scores will be available immediately after a student submits for grading.

Students who know they will miss a due date because of extenuating circumstances should contact the instructor so their situations can be dealt with on an individual basis. Acceptance of an extenuating circumstance is at the discretion of the instructor.

If students have technical difficulties during a quiz, they should use the ‘Help’ link located on the top toolbar within D2L to contact the MSU Information Systems Support Staff and send an email to the course instructor explaining what happened.

If a student finds a faulty quiz test item or believes a quiz question has been scored incorrectly, he/she should send an email to the course instructor that includes the following:

Module Quiz Number (1-6)

Question Stem

Rationale Supporting Why the Student’s Answer is Correct

Include Page Numbers When Referencing the Textbook

For example, a student cannot send the message: “I think question number ten is wrong on quiz four” because each student gets a quiz of randomly generated test items. The instructor has to know the question stem to find the question in the database. After reviewing the situation, if the course instructor thinks a revision is justified, the student’s quiz score will be revised to reflect the additional points, and the test bank will be updated.

·         Exams One and Two (25% each)

The students will take two (2) major exams in this course. The exams will be completed on campus with the instructor and students are required to bring a Scantron and a #2 pencil with them. The date, time, and location will be announced later. If a student cannot attend, he/she will need to schedule a time to have the exams proctored through a reliable testing center. More information will be forthcoming.

Exam One covers Modules 1, 2, and 3. Exam Two covers Modules 4 and 5.

Note: You may not submit a paper for a grade in this class that already has been (or will be) submitted for a grade in another course, unless you obtain the explicit written permission of me and the other instructor involved in advance.
Late Paper Policy

Students who know they will miss a due date because of extenuating circumstances should contact the instructor so their situations can be dealt with on an individual basis. Acceptance of an extenuating circumstance is at the discretion of the instructor.

Plagiarism Policy

Plagiarism is the use of someone else's thoughts, words, ideas, or lines of argument in your own work without appropriate documentation (a parenthetical citation at the end and a listing in "Works Cited")-whether you use that material in a quote, paraphrase, or summary. It is a theft of intellectual property and will not be tolerated, whether intentional or not.

Student Honor Creed

As an MSU Student, I pledge not to lie, cheat, steal, or help anyone else do so."

As students at MSU, we recognize that any great society must be composed of empowered, responsible citizens. We also recognize universities play an important role in helping mold these responsible citizens. We believe students themselves play an important part in developing responsible citizenship by maintaining a community where integrity and honorable character are the norm, not the exception.

Thus, We, the Students of Midwestern State University, resolve to uphold the honor of the University by affirming our commitment to complete academic honesty. We resolve not only to be honest but also to hold our peers accountable for complete honesty in all university matters.

We consider it dishonest to ask for, give, or receive help in examinations or quizzes, to use any unauthorized material in examinations, or to present, as one's own, work or ideas which are not entirely one's own. We recognize that any instructor has the right to expect that all student work is honest, original work. We accept and acknowledge that responsibility for lying, cheating, stealing, plagiarism, and other forms of academic dishonesty fundamentally rests within each individual student.

We expect of ourselves academic integrity, personal professionalism, and ethical character. We appreciate steps taken by University officials to protect the honor of the University against any who would disgrace the MSU student body by violating the spirit of this creed.

Written and adopted by the 2002-2003 MSU Student Senate.

Students with Disabilities

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Disability Support Services in Room 168 of the Clark Student Center, (940) 397-4140.

Safe Zones Statement

The professor considers this classroom to be a place where you will be treated with respect as a human being - regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, political beliefs, age, or ability. Additionally, diversity of thought is appreciated and encouraged, provided you can agree to disagree. It is the professor's expectation that ALL students consider the classroom a safe environment.

Contacting your Instructor

All instructors in the Department have voicemail in their offices and MWSU e-mail addresses. Make sure you add your instructor's phone number and e-mail address to both email and cell phone lists of contacts.

Attendance Requirements

Since this is an online course, there are no mandatory face-to-face sessions. However, the student should be vigilant in logging onto D2L. Regular checks will insure messages from the instructor are received in a timely manner. See the course calendar in D2L for specific information about activities and due dates. The instructor is available to meet face-to-face with any interested students. Please email the instructor to schedule an appointment.

Other Policies

Special Needs

In accordance with Section 504 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Midwestern State University endeavors to make reasonable adjustments in its policies, practices, services, and facilities to ensure equal opportunity for qualified persons with disabilities to participate in all educational programs and activities.

The Office of Disability Services (ODS) provides information and assistance, arranges accommodations, and serves as a liaison for students, instructors, and staff.  The ODS has assistive devices such as books on tape, recorders, and adaptive software which can be loaned to qualified individuals.  A student/employee who seeks accommodations on the basis of disability must register with the Office of Disability Services in the Counseling Center, Clark Student Center Room 108.  Documentation of disability from a competent professional is required.

Individuals with grievances related to discrimination or lack of accommodation on the basis of a disability are encouraged to resolve the problem directly with the area involved.  If the matter remains unresolved, advice and/or assistance will be provided by the Office of Disability Services for resolution. The grievance procedure may be found in the Student Handbook and Activities Calendar.

The Director of the Counseling Center serves as the ADA Coordinator and may be contacted at (940) 397.4618, TDD (940) 397.4515, or 3410 Taft Blvd., Clark Student Center Room 108.


Honor System

RADS 2112 adheres to the MSU Code of Conduct. In particular, academic dishonesty, however small, creates a breach in academic integrity. A student’s participation in this course comes with the expectation that his or her work will be completed in full observance of the MSU Code of Student Conduct. A student should consult the current Student Handbook for answers to any questions about the code.

Many components of RADS 2112 are designed to be highly interactive with students helping each other learn. Students are encouraged to take full advantage of many resources available including online D2L course resources, Internet sites, other textbooks and journals, faculty, and peers when answering objectives. This interactive collegial learning environment is conducive to life-long learning.

Specific components of RADS 2112 are designed to represent the efforts of each student individually and are not to be shared or copied (plagiarized) from other sources. These components include the module quizzes, brochure project, and two major exams. When students submit their efforts for grading, they are attesting they abided by this rule.

Cheating includes, but is not limited to: (1) use of any unauthorized assistance in taking quizzes, tests, or examinations; (2) dependence upon the aid of sources beyond those authorized by the instructor in writing papers, preparing reports, solving problems, or completing other assignments; or (3) the acquisition of tests or other academic materials belonging to the university faculty or staff without permission.

Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to: the use of, by paraphrase or direct quotation without correct citation in the text and on the reference list, the published or unpublished works of another person. Students may not submit papers and assignments that they have previously submitted for this or other courses. The use of materials generated by agencies engaged in "selling" term papers is also plagiarism. Students are encouraged to review the tutorials and suggested websites for more information about plagiarism. Papers and other assignments may be submitted to an external agency for verification of originality and authenticity.

Academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, etc.) will not be tolerated in this class. Whenever a student is unsure of whether a particular situation will be interpreted as academic dishonesty, the student should ask the instructor for clarification. If students are guilty of academic dishonesty, a grade of zero (0) may be given for the quiz, assignment, etc. Cases may also be referred to the Dean of Students for possible dismissal from the university.

Note: By enrolling in this course, the student expressly grants MSU a “limited right” in all intellectual property created by the student for the purpose of this course. The “limited right” shall include, but not limited to: the right to reproduce the student’s work product in order to verify originality and authenticity as well as for educational purposes. Specifically, faculty may submit student papers and assignments to an external agency to verify originality and authenticity to detect for plagiarism.


Administrative Process

Unresolved issues related to this course should be first addressed between the student and the course instructor. If there is no resolution, students must follow this sequence: 


1.      Department Chair: Dr. Jeff Killion (940) 397.4679

2.      College Dean: Dr. James Johnston (940) 397.4594

3.      Dean of Students: Dail Neely (940) 397.6273

Writing Proficiency Requirement

All students seeking a Bachelor's degree from Midwestern State University must satisfy a writing proficiency requirement once they've 1) passed the 6 hours of Communication Core and and 2) earned 60 hours. You may meet this requirement by passing either the Writing Proficiency Exam or English 2113. Please keep in mind that, once you've earned over 90 hours, you lose the opportunity to take the $25 exam and have no option but to enroll in the three-credit hour course. If you have any questions about the exam, visit the Writing Proficiency Office website at, or call 397-4131.

Campus Carry

Senate Bill 11 passed by the 84th Texas Legislature allows licensed handgun holders to carry concealed handguns on campus, effective August 1, 2016. Areas excluded from concealed carry are appropriately marked, in accordance with state law. For more information regarding campus carry, please refer to the University’s webpage at

If you have questions or concerns, please contact MSU Chief of Police Patrick Coggins at