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Classics in Translation

Course Details

Course Number
Section Number
Spring 2011
Bea Wood Hall
Classroom Number
Days & Times

6:30-9:20 PM TUESDAY

Dr. Peter Fields (view Profile)


Porphyry: On the Cave of the Nymphs
Station Hill Press 1983 Paperback
Chapman's Homer: The Odyssey
Ed. Allardyce Nicoll Preface by Garry Wills Bollingen Series XLI Paperback
Ovid's Metamorphoses: Arthur Golding Translation
The Arthur Golding Translation of 1567 Ed. John Frederick Nims New Essay by Jonathan Bate Paul Dry Books Paperback
The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri: INFERNO
Trans. Allen Mandelbaum Bantam Paperback 1983
The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri: PURGATORIO
Trans. Allen Mandelbaum Bantam Paperback 1984
Virgil's Aeneid Translated by John Dryden
Penguin Classics Paperback Ed. Frederick M. Keener
The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri: PARADISO
Trans. Allen Mandelbaum Bantam Paperback 1986
Course Objectives

Classics in Translation is an opportunity to examine in translation those classical works which most influenced English literature. In most cases, the translation itself stands as an important achievement, especially in the case of Chapman’s Homer, Golding’s Ovid, and Dryden’s Virgil. We will keep in mind the allegorical interpretation of Homer (as exemplified by Porphyry’s On the Cave of the Nymphs) that characterized the late classical period and influenced early Christian exegesis. The allegorical approach to pagan mythology would enjoy renewed emphasis during the Renaissance.


GOAL 1. Critical Inquiry

Objective 1.1:  Student engages in an increasingly sophisticated discourse and demonstrates aesthetic and critical discernment through close textual analysis.

Objective 1.2:  Student evaluates secondary sources and applies skills in information gathering and management, and document design, using traditional sources and emerging technologies.

GOAL 2.  Knowledge of Language and Literature

Objective 2.1:  Student understands the usage and structure of the English language.

Objective 2.2:  Student recognizes the stylistic techniques that distinguish key literary texts relevant to subject and genre.

Objective 2.3:  Student is familiar with the legacy of important ideas and contexts associated with literary periods.

Objective 2.4:  Student is introduced to academic and professional publications in the field.

GOAL 3.  Writing as Process

Objective 3.1:  Student reflects on his or her arguments over multiple stages of development.

Objective 3.2:  Using traditional resources and emerging technologies, the student references and formats primary and secondary sources in MLA style.

GOAL 4.  Engagement

Objective 4.1:  Student is aware of a cultural context for his or her own values and those of his or her sources.

Specific Course Objectives for Classics in Translation:

 The Seven Paragraph Essay with Outside Source

  • Participate in discussion by writing beforehand a synopsis and presenting it during class. The synopsis provides a Block Quote (BQ), some 8 to 14 lines verbatim (in a row) from a key passage in the primary text. Students compose a paragraph that addresses the BQ for relevant insights. The BQ and accompanying paragraph could be the basis of a seven paragraph essay.
  • Write three seven paragraph essays, each one based on a required passage in our reading list.
  • Start a seven paragraph essay by choosing a BQ from the primary text.
  • Write paragraph one (the introductory paragraph) last.
  • Start with paragraph two (which immediately follows the BQ). The first paragraph that students actually write in their own words is paragraph two. In paragraph two, students mine the BQ for relevant ideas they express in their own words. In this paragraph students should refrain from re-quoting or falling into restatements of language in the BQ. They should not bring in quotes from elsewhere in the primary text. Students should stay focused on the BQ.
  • Discuss character in paragraph three, utilizing four Short Quotes (SQs) from elsewhere in the key passage or the rest of the primary text. SQs may come from anywhere in the primary text—but not from the BQ. Begins with In regard to character.
  • Discuss irony in paragraph four, utilizing four more SQs not as yet used from the key passage or elsewhere in the primary text. Begins with In regard to irony.
  • Provide a critical review in paragraphs five and six. Begins with In regard to my critical review.
  • Make a sustained point in paragraph five of the critical review based on the editorial apparatus of a given primary text (e.g., preface, introduction, glossary, or notes). The editorial material may be offered by the translator or the editor or both (e.g., in Golding the best editorial source may be Golding himself in his Epistle or Preface or both). Quote from it at least once and compare your primary text to another primary text in our reading list (and quote from it as well).
  • Make a sustained point in paragraph six of the critical review based on an outside source (not found in our required books). At least one Short Quote (up to four lines) from the outside source should reinforce the discussion. The outside source is ideally a book from Moffett stacks or an article from Academic Search Complete (or other Moffett-supported database) or from interlibrary loan.
  • For paragraphs seven (final paragraph) and one (introductory paragraph), support a thesis that is clearly stated at the beginning of both paragraphs(though in different words).
  • For paragraphs seven (final paragraph) and one (introductory paragraph), support a thesis that is clearly stated at the beginning of both paragraphs (though in different words).
  • For paragraph seven (final paragraph) support the thesis at length and in-depth (no new quotes). Do not skimp on this paragraph.
  • For paragraph one (introductory paragraph) start with a summary of the essay’s rationale—the clearest possible expression of the student’s thesis and related sub-points but in economical terms (three to seven sentences). The rest of paragraph one (as many sentences as necessary) provides a context for the BQ. This context, or set-up, should indicate the key plot point(s) and circumstances related to the BQ.
  • For the Final Exam, write in class a six paragraph Blue Book essay on The Divine Comedy. There is no introductory paragraph. It begins with a pre-entered Block Quote. Otherwise, the format is the same as the seven paragraph essay.
  • Demonstrate correct written English. Grammar and phrasing problems will affect the grade.
  • Submit all their essays (including the graduate project) by e-mail attachment to Dr. Fields at the end of the course for archival and assessment purposes.

The Graduate Research Project

  • Students choose ONE of the three seven-paragraph essays as the foundation upon which to build their research project for this course.
  • Students re-approach the critical review. Instead of two paragraphs, it must be expanded to FIVE paragraphs (i.e., pars. 5-9) and bring in SIX more outside sources for a total of SEVEN outside sources. 
  • Students provide a REVISED introductory paragraph prior to the BQ as well as a REVISED final paragraph following the critical review in which the graduate student reconsiders the original thesis in light of the expanded review.
  • Students keep one of the paragraphs in the expanded critical review focused on one outside source (e.g., the original paragraph six).
  • Students submit a final research project of ten paragraphs and an expanded Works Cited.

 Final Exam (20 percent of overall grade)

TUESDAY EVENING (6:30 to 10 PM), MAY 10, 2011. Students may pre-enter the Block Quote in their Blue Book. They may already have an outline with bullet points on the inside Blue Book covers. The Blue Book is open-book and students may have their highlighted outside source with them during the test. The outside source must be properly acknowledged and documented in the Works Cited, which may also be pre-entered in the Blue Book. There is NO introductory paragraph, but otherwise everything is the same including proper MLA in-body citing. STUDENTS MAY OPT TO WRITE THEIR IN-CLASS BLUE BOOK ON THEIR LAPTOP. In that case, the WORD document for their bullet point outline may be expanded into their Blue Book (all quotes may be pre-entered; the Works Cited may be pre-entered). Students then e-mail their WORD document by attachment at the end of the test period to the instructor.

Course Expectations

The Nature of the Graduate Research Project

The first stage of the Graduate Research Project is a relatively modest essay, but it culminates in a fully developed research paper.

Between the modest essay and the final project, graduate students will reconsider their initial judgments and reflect more deeply on their inquiry, and develop over time their own synthesis of the disparate materials.

The two phases of the graduate research project comprise an unusual opportunity to analyze, explore, question, reconsider, and synthesize secondary sources. The research project will be tailored to the individual graduate student, affording a greater depth of education, specialized skills, and, most importantly, a sense of creative independence that will ultimately allow the graduate student to practice in and contribute to a profession or field of scholarship.


Chapman, George, trans. The Odyssey. By Homer. Ed. Allardyce Nicoll. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton UP, 1956. Vol. 1 of Chapman's Homer. Bollingen Series 41.

Dante Alighieri. Inferno. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam, 1982. Vol. 1 of The Divine Comedy.

---. Paradiso. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam, 1986. Vol. 3 of The Divine Comedy.

---. Purgatorio. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam, 1984. Vol. 2 of The Divine Comedy.

Dryden, John, trans. Virgil’s Aeneid. Ed. Frederick M. Keener. London and New York: Penguin, 1997.

Golding, Arthur, trans. Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Ed. John Frederick Nims. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books, 2000.

Porphyry. On the Cave of the Nymphs. Trans. Robert Lamberton. Barrytown, New York: Station Hill Press, 1983.

 Proper Format (using MLA citing standards)

The Seven Paragraph Essay with Outside Source:

The first paragraph, or introduction, begins with the clearest possible explanation (3-7 sentences) of the student’s argument (and, for that reason, the first paragraph is best composed last). The first paragraph should end with a context that explains the relevant plotline and anticipates a key idea in the Block Quote that immediately follows (the first paragraph ends on a colon, followed by the Block Quote). For the Final Project, this paragraph is REVISED to reflect your reconsideration of your thesis.

 Each essay features a Block Quote (BQ), a long passage from the play cited word for word exactly the way it appears in our text (don’t turn poetry into prose). Instead of quotation marks, students set the BQ off an extra 10 spaces on the left all the way down. Next to it is the parenthetical reference (line numbers):

 The following is an example of a synopsis. As such, the example also illustrates how the BQ and paragraph two might look (you’re allowed ONE BQ for an essay):

                And thus the earth which late before had neyther shape nor hew,

Did take the noble shape of man and was transformed new.

Then sprang up first the golden age, which of it selfe maintained

The truth and right of every thing unforct and unconstrained.

There was no fear of punishment, there was no threatening lawe

In brazen tables nayled up, to keepe the folke in awe.

There was no man would crouch or ceepe to Judge with cap in hand,

They lived safe without a Judge, in everie Realme and lande. (1.101-108)

 Here Golding’s Ovid invites us to the heart of the Renaissance. Golding reminds us that the last act of creation is that which gives all things a human dimension. This final creation is really best understood as metamorphosis. The creation of human beings is the same thing as remaking the universe with a human form. No matter what we discover in the universe we are really finding some heretofore unexplored or unacknowledged aspect of ourselves. Therefore, we should be in harmony with all things. There is no natural enmity between us and what we perceive because what we perceive is simply another aspect of ourselves. The first age of the world did not require a Decalogue. It was not necessary to set limits upon people because there was nothing about us—or the universe—that erred from ourselves. No one had to decree edicts to insure justice. We were a law unto ourselves not by usurpation but by design. Human nature was nature—there was nothing incompatible with our true selves.

 The second paragraph (above) comes AFTER the BQ and mines the BQ for ideas. The second paragraph does NOT have any quotes, either from the Block Quote or from elsewhere in the poem or story.

 The third paragraph, regarding character (the motivation of a person or a people in the story), utilizes four Short Quotes (SQs) that were not part of the BQ. Always provide the line number(s) immediately following the quote. Notice below that we always ANTICIPATE a quote with its significance for our discussion, especially if it’s a longer quote.

 In regard to character, Golding’s Prometheus is that secondary creator who is focused on making a creature “in likenesse to the Gods that governe everie thing” (96). We cannot help but notice that the creation story in Golding’s Ovid starts with a “rude confused masse” (34). God (or Nature) sets boundaries, assigning the celestial regions to the stars and the gods (79-83). The last act of creation was embodied by Prometheus who molded a human shape. This last act of creation did more than create one more player in the scheme of things. The creation of human beings changed everything. Through this human shape the universe “was transformed new” (102). There is no doubt that Golding’s Prometheus meant for humans to emulate the gods in “depth of knowledge, reason, wit, and high capacitie” (89) and to aspire ever greater than themselves in a visionary sense: “He [Prometheus] gave to Man a stately looke replete with majestie. / And willed him to behold the Heaven with countenance cast on hie” (98-99). But Prometheus had in mind something more thoroughgoing than mere authority. His secondary creation gave the entire world its basic character and organizing principle: a human dimension accessible to human sense and human understanding. Indeed, Golding’s Ovid hints that the creation of human beings is part and parcel of what it means to bring order out of chaos: “And thus the earth which late before had neyther shape nor hew, / Did take the noble shape of man” (101-102).

 NOTE: We do NOT lead with quotes—we lead with its meaning to us. First, we state the significance of the passage; then we cite the direct quote as back-up to our interpretation. Use a forward slash (/) between lines of SQs which go on for several lines (three lines at the most—you’re only allowed ONE BQ for an essay or graduate project). The 3rd paragraph should begin In regard to character.

 The fourth paragraph, regarding irony (when the opposite of what we expect proves to be true), utilizes four more (never before used) SQs. The 4th paragraph should begin In regard to irony.

 The fifth paragraph begins In regard to my critical review. Here students need to sustain a point from the editorial/critical apparatus (including notes) of the book that contains the primary text. This editorial point must be reinforced by at least one direct quote. You also need to offer a comparison (with direct quote) from a different primary text required in the course:

 In regard to my critical review, I want to cite Arthur Golding’s Epistle where he cannot resist equating the Logos of the Gospel of John to Ovid’s Prometheus: “Thus may Prometheus seeme to be th’eternal word of God, / His wisdom, and his providence which formed man of clod” (453-54). The Promethean-Logos specialty, according to Golding, is that of creating human images and giving them the power of life, a power that Prometheus reportedly stole from heaven (438-44). It should be noted that the Promethean phase of the creation story presumes that creation began with the raw material of chaos and void (390-400). In his Epistle Golding cites Philo Judaeus (who gave us the idea of Logos) in regard to the two stages of creation, the first of which was murky, dark, and “uncorporall and such as could not fall / As objects under sense of sight” (357-58). The second creation offers three levels, the vegetative, the animal, and the human. But the latter is human “understanding, wit, and reason” (39), and it enfolds the other two levels within it: “And as the second dooth conteine the first: even so the third” (41). For Golding the Promethean creation comes last and has the effect of enshrining human shape (human sensibility and cognizance) as not only the modus operandi of making order out of chaos but also the nature of what we always discover. Similarly, Porphyry speaks of Homer’s Cave of the Nymphs as an analogy of that creation which wraps the universe in human shape. The dark, alluring cave in Homer is an in-between milieu where the “noetic” (26) becomes the “sensible”(27), a conduit for that “general class of souls descending into γενεςις [genesis]” (27). The universe is at once shadowy and hard—like a cave. But the nymphs in the cave are souls, and they weave the wine-colored sea into human bodies (29). In so doing they are also weaving our universe “as if it were a garment cast around the heavenly gods” (29). For both Porphyry and Golding, the classical creation story is one of giving an otherwise non-comprehensible universe a human form. But Golding also hints at a conundrum. On the one hand, in Golding’s Epistle our “countenance cast on hye” (457) acknowledges “heaven as our native soyle” (464). On the other, humanity’s “better part” (465) is something stolen—something that marks us as outlaw Prometheans.

NOTE: Golding’s acknowledgement in his Epistle that Prometheus is a thief would have also worked in the IRONY paragraph (paragraph FOUR). But if you use the Epistle or Preface in paragraphs THREE or FOUR, you are obliged to use Nims or Bate for paragraph FIVE. EXCEPTION: YOU MAY USE AN OUTSIDE SOURCE IN PARAGRAPH FIVE instead of the translation’s editorial/critical apparatus as long as that outside source is closely relevant to the translator or original author of the primary text. You are then required to use a different outside source for paragraph six.

The sixth paragraph (which continues the critical review) should introduce an idea from an outside source (e.g., a scholarly article from a Moffett-supported database like Academic Search Complete or a serious title from the Moffett book stacks). The idea is to offer a sustained discussion of a thought in your outside source and then come back to your own point. There should be at least one direct quote from the outside source (up to four lines of your typing). NOTE: We never just quote—we anticipate the quote with the idea and context in our own words. Here proper acknowledgement of the sustained point is highlighted in bold:

According to Barbara Frey Waxman in her article “Victor Frankenstein’s Romantic Fate: The Tragedy of the Promethean Overreacher as Woman” for Papers on Language and Literature, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (sub-titled The Modern Prometheus) offers us a type of Promethean-creator whose creative pursuit is strikingly female in its attributes as well as transgressive. In Waxman’s view, Shelley’s Frankenstein is almost bisexual in the way he crosses back and forth between gender distinctions, drawing on the same paradoxes of human creation as a mother might (14-15). Like a woman, Frankenstein has the power to both destroy and give life. Emotionally, he has the capacity to cherish what he creates—and to despise it (16). According to Waxman, Shelley’s Promethean Frankenstein is a tragic figure. His going back-and-forth between male and female, between creator god and human being, violates a cosmic order and calls down reprisals: “He has seen beyond himself as a man and as a human being, experiencing an epiphanic, Godlike, womanly insight into motherhood by dissolving the barriers between male and female, love and hate, and life and death. No human being can endure long after such apocalyptic unifying moments—at least in a Romantic context—and death is a fitting tragic end for him” (26). HERE FOLLOWS YOUR OWN POINT: For Golding the Promethean point is that the universe has a human shape and what we find in it represents an unfolding revelation of what it means to be human. Golding acknowledges but does not emphasize the outlaw nature of Promethean creation and that it involves making human images and animating them. However, for the 19th century romantics, we, like Prometheus, cannot resist recreating the inert universe in a lively, human sense—galvanizing and transforming it as Prometheus did. In doing so, we steal something from heaven and pay a heavy price for becoming creators of human images.

Remember: Any use of a source requires in-body attribution—e.g., “according to [name of author(s)] in his or her article [title of article] for the journal [name of journal]—and then a page number in parentheses when you’re finished explaining a given point. Each time you finish making a point from the source you need to provide a parenthetical page at the end of the point’s final sentence. You need in-body attribution and a parenthetical page number even if you’re not directly quoting.

The seventh paragraph begins with the position (your thesis) and offers in depth support. Suggestions: Following the thesis, students might offer a concession (based perhaps on a point in the irony paragraph), and then reinforce the position (refined position) with THREE sub-points: i.e., three supporting reasons in support of the thesis based on key points raised in paragraphs 2-3 (but there is NO quoting in the seventh paragraph). The first sub-point reinforcing your position might kick off with nevertheless or nonetheless—because you are returning to your thesis despite (and in light of) the concession you just offered. For the graduate research project, this paragraph would be REVISED as paragraph ten and reflect your deepened consideration.

The Research Project (expanding the Seven Paragraph Essay with Outside Source into a Ten Paragraph Essay with Seven Outside Sources):

Expanding the Critical Review: For the research project, students will expand the critical review from two to five paragraphs (paragraphs 5-6 become paragraphs 5-9). They must have a total of SEVEN outside sources utilized in pars. 5-9. One of the paragraphs of the critical review must be devoted to just one of the outside sources (e.g., the original paragraph six would suffice). When students introduce a new source, they should acknowledge the author: e.g., According to or As John Smith explains. If students sustain the author’s point, they should acknowledge the source again, e.g., Smith adds or Smith also points out. Even if students do not directly quote from the source, they nevertheless must provide parenthetical pages for any point in the source that they express in their own words. In paragraphs 5-9, students may have quotes up to four lines of their own typing (but NOT block quotes). Students do not have to quote directly from all of the SEVEN outside sources; however, each source must be properly introduced and parenthetical pages provided at the close of a given point in the students’ own words.

Revising Paragraphs Seven and One:  Students should re-approach paragraphs seven and one in light of their deeper discussion. The thesis and key points will necessarily reflect the deeper reflection of the expanded critical review.

Grading Standards

The three seven-paragraph essays are worth 30 percent (10 percent each) of the semester grade, while the Blue Book Final Exam is worth 20 percent. The synopses are worth 10 percent. The Graduate Project is worth 40 percent of the final grade. Students read aloud from synopses in class. All drafts must be retained in the folder in the order they were written. All work is submitted in the folder (except for the Blue Book Final).The document to be graded is hole-punched and fixed in the brads of the folder. Photocopies/printouts of sources are provided and retained in the pockets.              

Final Exam 05/10/2011 8:00 PM
Submission Format Policy

Proper Format and Submission of all Work (DOUBLE SPACE EVERYTHING!)

  • All writing must be typed (12 point Times New Roman), double-spaced, with a header for the student’s last name (in the default .5 setting in upper right corner), page numbers inserted (upper right, .5 setting), and MLA format for citing, including the Works Cited. However, while the top, right, and bottom margins should be set at one inch, the left margin should be an inch and a quarter to accommodate the folder.On the first page of an essay, the student name, instructor name, course, and date should be in the upper left, double-spaced.
  • Students must submit, and retain, all their typed hole-punched assignments in the clasps (i.e., “brads”) of a folder (which has both brads and pockets) in the order that they were assigned. The photocopy or printout of the relevant outside source(s) must be in the pockets (highlighted for the relevant passages). The most recent assignment that needs to be graded is always the last item (hole-punched and fixed in the brads).
  • Students must submit their work in person (from their hands into the instructor’s hands). Submission for a due-date is never by e-mail attachment or under the office door, or left on a desk, or by surrogate (classmate or relative). Late work also must be submitted in person.
  • Work submitted apart from the guidelines of this syllabus will not be evaluated and must be resubmitted and penalized for lateness.
  • At the end of the course, Dr. Fields will ask students to send him the computer files of their four essays for archival purposes. 



 “I was new entered on this state / when I beheld a Great Lord enter here; / the crown he wore, a sign of victory” (4.52-54) says Virgil to Dante, recalling the time when Christ entered hell following the crucifixion and took away the Old Testament faithful. “He made them blessed; / and I should have you know that, before them, / there were no human souls that had been saved” (61-63) makes the point that no matter how good a person was, only the savior who defeated death and broke into hell could rescue any one and make them “blessed.” Dante asked “did any every go –by his own merit / or others’—from this place toward blessedness” (49-50) which brings up the whole problem of hell as something no one can do anything about—except the savior.

 HERE IS A VARIATION ON LEADING WITH QUOTES WHICH IS JUST AS BAD. Citing a quote and then following it with your own variety of annotation is really what we might call your notes. It is a preliminary discussion which is not ready for prime time:

 “I was new entered on this state / when I beheld a Great Lord enter here; / the crown he wore, a sign of victory” (4.52-54). Here Virgil recalls the fateful experience of Christ harrowing hell. How sad and painful it is to imagine the newly-dead Virgil witnessing Christ’s victory over death only to see Christ leave without him. “He made them blessed; / and I should have you know that, before them, / there were no human souls that had been saved” (61-63). Here Virgil is more knowing and speaks from experience. He knows that no matter how righteous a person might be, he or she simply lacks the power and authority to break out of hell. Therefore, “did any every go –by his own merit / or others’—from this place toward blessedness” (49-50) is a great question put by Dante to Virgil. Virgil makes the point that virtue may determine one’s place in the afterlife, but only Christ can break through the walls and rescue someone from hell. Virgil is a virtuous person—but he is not “blessed.”


HERE IS THE CORRECT METHOD. Make your points in your own words and INTEGRATE short quotes at the end of a clause. Always ANTICIPATE longer quotes with their FULL significance in your own words:

 When Virgil recalls the harrowing of hell, he does so with the naïve almost childlike language of someone who at the time was but “new entered on this state” (4.52). However, by the time he rescues Dante from despair, we know that Virgil is a spiritual veteran and knows who the “Great Lord” (53) was. We feel the sense of loss he must feel as one who saw the redemption of the righteous dead without being included. However, he does not attribute the redemption of the Old Testament faithful to their own powers. They are made happy by the only person with mastery over life and death: “He made them blessed; / and I should have you know that, before them, / there were no human souls that had been saved” (61-63). It is not by their “own merit” (49) that the early faithful escaped with Christ from Limbo. 

 Works Cited


Please note that we’re using the CROSS REFERENCE technique of MLA [i.e., MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th edition. Sec. 5.3.6—p. 135].

Works Cited (for Golding)

Here would be the WORKS CITED for the sample Critical Review (pars. 5-6) indicated above (i.e., instead of Nims or Bate, the writer used Golding’s own Epistle for paragraph five).

Golding, Arthur, The Epistle Nims 405-22.

---, trans. Metamorphoses. Nims 3-404.

Nims, John Frederick, ed. Ovid’s Metamorphoses: The Arthur Golding Translation of 1567. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books, 2000. Print.

Porphyry. On the Cave of the Nymphs. Trans. Robert Lamberton. Station Hill Press, 1983. Print.

Waxman, Barbara Frey. “Victor Frankenstein’s Romantic Fate: The Tragedy of the Promethean Overreacher as Woman.” Papers on Language and Literature 23.1 (1987): 14-26. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.

Works Cited (variation for Golding)

Here the student opts not to use Golding’s Epistle or Preface for paragraph five. Perhaps he cited the Epistle in paragraph four in regard to Irony. The student then would use material from the ample introduction by Nims and/or preface by Bate; in paragraph five the student compares not to Porphyry but to Chapman’s Homer.

 Bate, Jonathan. “Shakespeare’s Ovid.” Nims xli-l.

Golding, Arthur, trans. Metamorphoses. Nims 3-404.

---. The Preface Nims 423-29.

Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. George Chapman. Ed. Allardyce Nicoll. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton UP, 2000. Print. Vol. 1 of Chapman’s Homer. Bollingen Series XLI.

Nims, John Frederick. Introduction. “Ovid, Golding, and the Craft of Poetry.” Nims xiii-xxxv.

---, ed. Ovid’s Metamorphoses: The Arthur Golding Translation of 1567. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books, 2000. Print.

Waxman, Barbara Frey. “Victor Frankenstein’s Romantic Fate: The Tragedy of the Promethean Overreacher as Woman.” Papers on Language and Literature 23.1 (1987): 14-26. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.

Works Cited (Chapman’s Homer)

Here the student may find the editor’s preface and introduction for Chapman’s Homer too paltry for more than minimal use. The hypothetical student might very briefly quote from Nicoll’s preface and introduction, but then rely on Chapman’s Letter to the Earl of Somerset and a scholarly article (like that by Jessica Wolfe) to flesh out paragraph five (but as long as the student uses a source like Wolfe in paragraph five, any use of the editorial matter in Nicoll is purely optional); Matthews would be reserved for paragraph six (the student couldn’t use the same outside source as the mainstay source for bothparagraphs five and six). The student’s comparison text (in paragraph five) would be Dante’s Inferno because Ulysses (Odysseus) is in Canto 26:

 Chapman, George, trans. Odyssey. Nicoll 11-422.

---. “To the Earle of Somerset.” Nicoll 3-8.

Dante Aligheri. Inferno. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam, 1982. Print. Vol. 1 of The Divine Comedy.

Matthews, Steven. “T.S. Eliot’s Chapman: ‘Metaphysical’ Poetry and Beyond.” Journal of Modern Literature 29.4 (2006): 22-43. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.

Nicoll, Allardyce. Introduction. Nicoll xvii-xxii.

----, ed. The Odyssey. By Homer. Trans. George Chapman. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton UP, 2000. Vol. 2 of Chapman’s Homer. Bollingen Series XLI.

---. Preface to the 2000 edition. Nicoll vii-xiv.

Wolfe, Jessica. “Chapman’s Ironic Homer.” College Literature 35.4 (2008): 151-86. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.

 Works Cited (example for Dryden’s Virgil)

Dante Alighieri. Inferno. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam, 1982. Print. Vol. 1 of The Divine Comedy.

Dryden, John, trans. Æneis. By Virgil. Keener 1-377.

Fujimura, Thomas H.“Dyrden’s ‘Virgil’: Translation as Autobiography.” Studies in Philology 80.1 (1983): 67-83. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.

Keener, Frederick M. Glossary. Keener 382-423.

Keener, Frederick M. Preface. Keener vii-xlii.

---, ed. Virgil’s Aeneid. Trans. John Dryden. London: Penguin Books, 1997. Print.

 Works Cited (for Dante’s The Divine Comedy Blue Book)

Here the hypothetical student opts to highlight the metamorphosis episode in Canto XXV of Inferno. In paragraph five, the student might choose to quote from Mandelbaum’s extensive Notesand compare to the Hermaphrodite episode in Golding’s Ovid. For paragraph six, the student has the option of using an outside source on Ovid’s Hermaphrodite episode as opposed to an article on Dante—which is permissible.

 Dante Aligheri. Inferno. Mandelbaum 12-317.

Golding, Arthur, trans. Metamorphoses. 1567. By Ovid. Ed. John Frederick Nims. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books, 2000.

Mandelbaum, Allen, trans. Inferno by Dante Alighieri. New York: Bantam, 1982. Vol 1. of The Divine Comedy. Print.

---. Notes. Mandelbaum 344-96.

Stone, James W. “The Mirror of Hermaphroditus.” Style 36.1 (2002): 169-85. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.

Note: You may not submit a paper for a grade in this class that already has been (or will be) submitted for a grade in another course, unless you obtain the explicit written permission of me and the other instructor involved in advance.
Late Paper Policy

 Late Penalties and Illness

An assignment is late if submitted after the class period it is due and penalized 10 points. If late by two class periods, the essay is penalized 20 points. No late work may be submitted after the last class period on Tuesday evening, May 3rd. A class period is officially over when the instructor dismisses it. All late work must be submitted IN PERSON.

Plagiarism Policy

Plagiarism is the use of someone else's thoughts, words, ideas, or lines of argument in your own work without appropriate documentation (a parenthetical citation at the end and a listing in "Works Cited")-whether you use that material in a quote, paraphrase, or summary. It is a theft of intellectual property and will not be tolerated, whether intentional or not.

Student Honor Creed

As an MSU Student, I pledge not to lie, cheat, steal, or help anyone else do so."

As students at MSU, we recognize that any great society must be composed of empowered, responsible citizens. We also recognize universities play an important role in helping mold these responsible citizens. We believe students themselves play an important part in developing responsible citizenship by maintaining a community where integrity and honorable character are the norm, not the exception.

Thus, We, the Students of Midwestern State University, resolve to uphold the honor of the University by affirming our commitment to complete academic honesty. We resolve not only to be honest but also to hold our peers accountable for complete honesty in all university matters.

We consider it dishonest to ask for, give, or receive help in examinations or quizzes, to use any unauthorized material in examinations, or to present, as one's own, work or ideas which are not entirely one's own. We recognize that any instructor has the right to expect that all student work is honest, original work. We accept and acknowledge that responsibility for lying, cheating, stealing, plagiarism, and other forms of academic dishonesty fundamentally rests within each individual student.

We expect of ourselves academic integrity, personal professionalism, and ethical character. We appreciate steps taken by University officials to protect the honor of the University against any who would disgrace the MSU student body by violating the spirit of this creed.

Written and adopted by the 2002-2003 MSU Student Senate.

Students with Disabilities

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Disability Support Services in Room 168 of the Clark Student Center, (940) 397-4140.

Safe Zones Statement

The professor considers this classroom to be a place where you will be treated with respect as a human being - regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, political beliefs, age, or ability. Additionally, diversity of thought is appreciated and encouraged, provided you can agree to disagree. It is the professor's expectation that ALL students consider the classroom a safe environment.

Contacting your Instructor

All instructors in the Department have voicemail in their offices and MWSU e-mail addresses. Make sure you add your instructor's phone number and e-mail address to both email and cell phone lists of contacts.

Attendance Requirements

 Attendance Policy

Roll is taken right away as soon as class begins. The instructor is not obliged to count people present who arrive late. A student with three unexcused absences receives a warning from the instructor. As of the fourth unexcused absence, the instructor reserves the right to notify the Dean of Students and to initiate removal of the student from the course.

Other Policies


ENGLISH DEPARTMENT POLICY: Plagiarism is the use of someone else’s thoughts, words, ideas, or lines of argument in your own work without appropriate documentation (a parenthetical citation at the end and a listing in "Works Cited")—whether you use that material in a quotation, paraphrase, or summary. It is a theft of intellectual property and will not be tolerated, whether intentional or not.

 Language too close to the student’s own documented sources: In our course, restating language word for word (or close to word for word) from the student’s own documented sources without using quotation marks or setting it off as a Block Quote puts an essay at risk of penalty in regard to the grade, even if the student provides a parenthetical page at the end of a sentence and includes the source in the Works Cited.

 The seven paragraph essays are opportunities for the instructor to have teachable moments with students regarding language which is TOO CLOSE to their own documented source (e.g., any four words in a row verbatim from the documented source must be revised; use of the same key nouns, verbs, adjectives, and phrases must be revised). Students must revise these lapses—fully, dynamically, creatively, and insightfully—by the due date for the Graduate Research Project. Students who persist even at this final stage in using language too close to their own documented sources risk penalty to the project’s grade and the grade for the course.

 Non-Documented Sources: Students who use information and/or phrasing from sources that are not documented in the Works Cited bibliography are guilty of plagiarism and will receive a failing grade of 0 (no points) for the assignment even if the rest of the essay is original and the other sources are properly documented. Use of undocumented sources is an infraction of the university’s policy on academic dishonesty and may be reported to the university.

Classroom Policies

  • Except for emergencies, students shouldn’t text or talk on their “cells” during class. If something serious is at stake, students should take the call outside.
  • There is no use of headsets or listening devices for I-Pods or the like.
  • Students may go to the restroom as the need arises except when the instructor is explaining a detailed point to the whole class.
  • In this course students must allow other class members to see their works-in-progress, including on the big screen and/or in presentations.
  • Students must have the instructor’s permission to leave class early.
  • If students know they are going to be absent, they MUST e-mail the instructor or leave a message at 940-397-4246.
  • If students have been absent, they MUST e-mail the instructor or leave a message at 940-397-4246 or otherwise explain the absence to the instructor.
  • The above messages, however, do NOT constitute an excused absence. But if reasonable or otherwise plausible, these messages may influence the instructor to assume the student is still in the class.
  • An excused absence is when students follow up on their e-mail or voice-mail message to the instructor by showing him documentation from a doctor or clinic or court. The instructor will also count as valid documentation from the Dean of Students. Students are well-advised to contact the Dean of Students with relevant information about an absence.

Americans with Disabilities Act

Please contact the Disability Support Services in Room 168 of the Clark Student Center, 397-4140, if you need to file paperwork and request accommodations. This course complies with all requests on behalf of students made by Disability Support Services.

Writing Proficiency Requirement

All students seeking a Bachelor's degree from Midwestern State University must satisfy a writing proficiency requirement once they've 1) passed the 6 hours of Communication Core and and 2) earned 60 hours. You may meet this requirement by passing either the Writing Proficiency Exam or English 2113. Please keep in mind that, once you've earned over 90 hours, you lose the opportunity to take the $25 exam and have no option but to enroll in the three-credit hour course. If you have any questions about the exam, visit the Writing Proficiency Office website at, or call 397-4131.

Campus Carry

Senate Bill 11 passed by the 84th Texas Legislature allows licensed handgun holders to carry concealed handguns on campus, effective August 1, 2016. Areas excluded from concealed carry are appropriately marked, in accordance with state law. For more information regarding campus carry, please refer to the University’s webpage at

If you have questions or concerns, please contact MSU Chief of Police Patrick Coggins at